Why Dan & Ephraim are not mentioned in Revelation & the Two Witnesses from Dan & Ephraim
by Mikkel S. Kragh
One of the great mysteries of the Book of Revelation is why Dan is not mentioned among the 144,000 sealed Israelites. These 144,000 are going to be sealed and protected before the start of the Great Tribulation:
“And I saw another angel ascending from the east, having the seal of the living God: and he cried with a loud voice to the four angels, to whom it was given to hurt the earth and the sea, Saying, Hurt not the earth, neither the sea, nor the trees, till we have sealed the servants of our God in their foreheads. And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were sealed and hundred and forty and four thousand of all the tribes of the children of Israel. Of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Reuben were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Gad were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Aser were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Nephtalim were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Manasses were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Simeon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Levi were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Issachar were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Zabulon were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand. Of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand.” (Rev 7:2-8)
I. Popular theories
There are two popular theories on why Dan is not mentioned.
The first theory says that it is simply a mistake made by someone copying the Bible, and that Dan originally was among the 144,000 sealed Israelites when St John wrote Revelation. One of the reasons why this theory is incorrect is because God is in control of His Word, the Bible. God would not let such an error slip into the Bible. If Dan is missing from the 144,000, it is because Dan indeed is missing, not due to a human mistake.
The other theory says that the reason Dan is missing is because the Antichrist is going to be of the tribe of Dan, and that the tribe of Dan is going to follow the Antichrist. One reason why this theory is incorrect is because Dan is not the only missing tribe among the 144,000. Ephraim's name is also missing along with Dan's name, and this theory does not answer this mystery. The Antichrist may or may not be of the tribe of Dan, but the reason that Dan's name is missing is not because of the Antichrist.
II. Dan is in Revelation, but is not mentioned by name
The reader of the Bible will probably have noticed that there are themes that appear both in the beginning and in the end of the Bible. For example, in Genesis 2-3 we read about the sinless Garden of Eden where man lived forever with God, and how Paradise was lost. In Revelation 21-22 we read about how Paradise is restored and how man is going to live forever with God. This is because the Bible is written in a chiasm. A chiasm is a literary structure which divides the text into two halves with sections which are mirrored images of each other (example: A-B-C-c-b-a).
By looking at the chiastic structure of the Bible, we can also get a clue about Dan in Revelation. The first of the 12 patriarchs who is mentioned in the Bible is Dan, although he was only number 5 of the 12 patriarchs. Dan is first mentioned in Genesis 14: “And when Abram heard that his brother [Lot] was taken captive, he armed his trained servants, born in his own house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued them unto Dan.” (Gen 14:14) Dan is mentioned 3 generations before he was born, when his grandfather Isaac was not even born.
In other words: The first time the name of Dan is mentioned, Dan is not there. By using the chiastic structure of the Bible, we can thereby deduct that the mirrored image will appear in the end of the Bible. In other words: In the beginning of the Bible Dan's name is mentioned without Dan being there. And in the end of the Bible Dan's name will be missing, but Dan WILL be there. In other words: Dan is present in Revelation, but his name is not there.
Samson the Danite is mentioned by Samuel, but his name is missing
We find a confirmation of Dan being present in Revelation, although the name of Dan is missing.
After Saul had become king, Samuel spoke to all Israel and mentions the greatest of the judges: “And the LORD sent Jerubbaal, and Bedan, and Jephthah, and Samuel, and delivered you out of the hand of your enemies on every side, and ye dwelled safe.” (1 Sam 12:11) Three of these judges – Jerubbaal (a.k.a. Gideon), Jephthah and Samuel - are mentioned in the book of Judges and 1st Samuel. But nowhere does the Bible mention anything about a judge called Bedan. Since Samson is probably the most famous of all the judges, Bedan must obviously refer to Samson. For example, Hebrews chap. 11 - the “Bible's Hall of Faith chapter” - mentions 5 judges: Gideon (a.k.a. Jerubbaal), Barak, Samson, Jephthah and Samuel. Bedan must be a corruption of the Hebrew “Ben Dan”, which means the “Son of Dan”, which is an obvious reference to Samson.
The point is that in 1st Samuel, the most famous Danite is present, but his name is missing. Likewise in Revelation, Dan is present, but the name of Dan is missing.
III. Manasseh takes Dan's place among the 144,000
If you compare the order in which the 12 tribes of Israel are mentioned in Revelation chap. 7 with the order in which the 12 tribes and the 12 patriarchs are mentioned in the Old Testament, you will see that in Revelation 7, Dan's place has been given to Manasseh. When the 12 tribes and 12 patriarchs are mentioned in the Old Testament, Dan is either listed along with the other sons of the concubines – Naphtali, Asher and Gad (Gen 29-30, Gen 49, Num 1, Num 2, Deu 27, Deu 33, Eze 48:1-29) – or along with Rachel's sons Joseph and Benjamin (1 Chron 2:1-2, Eze 48:30-35), or not listed at all (1 Chron 2:3-7:40).
In Revelation 7, the 12 tribes are listed: Judah, Reuben, Gad, Asher, Naphtali, MANASSEH, Simeon, Levi, Issachar, Zebulon, Joseph and Benjamin. Dan's place should be next to Gad, Asher and Naphtali, but it has been given to Manasseh. Manasseh was the brother of Ephraim, and they were the two sons of Joseph. In the Old Testament Manasseh and Ephraim are almost always mentioned next to each other.
The question is then: Why has Dan's place been given to Manasseh?
The question could also be asked: Why has Dan's place been given to Manasseh, and not to Ephraim?
The question could also be asked: Why is Manasseh's name mentioned in Revelation 7, but Ephraim's name is missing?
The final question is then: Why are both Dan and Ephraim not mentioned in Revelation chap. 7?
IV. The two witnesses of Dan & Ephraim in Revelation chap. 11
In Revelation chap. 11 we read about two witnesses, or prophets, whom God is going to raise up during the Great Tribulation:
“And I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days in sackcloth. These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth. And if any man will hurt them, fire proceedeth out of their mouth, and devoureth their enemies: and if any man will hurt them, he must in this manner be killed. These have power to shut heaven, that it rain not in the days of their prophecy: and have power over waters to turn them to blood, and to smite the earth with all plagues, as often as they will. And when they shall have finished their testimony, the beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit shall make war against them, and shall overcome them, and kill them. And their dead bodies shall lie in the street of the great city, which spiritually is called Sodom and Egypt, where also our Lord was crucified. And they of the people and kindreds and tongues and nations shall see their dead bodies three days and an half, and shall not suffer their dead bodies to be put in graves. And they that dwell upon the earth shall rejoice over them, and make merry, and shall send gifts one to another, because these two prophets tormented them that dwelled on the earth. And after three days and an half the Spirit of life from God entered into them, and they stood upon their feet, and great fear fell upon them which saw them. And they heard a great voice from heaven saying unto them, Come up hither. And they ascended up to heaven in a cloud, and their enemies beheld them. And the same hour was there a great earthquake, and the tenth part of the city fell, and in the earthquake were slain of men seven thousand: and the remnant were affrighted, and gave glory to the God of heaven.” (Rev 11:3-13)
These two witnesses have characteristics of Moses, Elijah and John the Baptist.
They are similar to Moses because they smite “spiritual Egypt” with the new version of the 10 plagues of ancient Egypt. They also start leading the 144,000 Israelites and the great multitude of all nations and races out of “spiritual Egypt”.
They are similar to Elijah because they have power to shut heaven that it rain not. Like Elijah, they are taken up to heaven in a cloud. According to Malachi 3:1 and 4:5-6, God will send a prophet in the spirit and power of Elijah before the Messiah comes. Likewise these two witnesses will be the last great prophets before the 2nd Coming of Christ.
They are similar to John the Baptist because John was the final great prophet before the 1st Coming of Christ and a fulfilment of the prophecy about Elijah (Matt 11:7-14). And like John, the two witnesses will be killed.
Who are these two witnesses? One of the witnesses is of the tribe of Dan and the other witness is of the tribe of Ephraim.
The Danite witness
We find types and foreshadows of a Danite being one of the two final great prophets in the construction of the Ark of Covenant and the Tabernacle and Solomon's Temple.
When God commanded Moses to build the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle, He also appointed two excellent craftsmen filled with the Spirit of God to be in charge of the work. They were Bezaleel of the tribe of Judah and Aholiab of the tribe of Dan:
“And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, See I have called by name Bezaleel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah … And I, behold, I have given with him Aholiab, the son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan: and in the heart of all that are wise hearted I have put wisdom, that they may make all that I have commanded thee; The tabernacle of the congregation, and the ark of the testimony, and the mercy seat that is thereupon, and all the furniture of the tabernacle” (Exo 31:1-2, 6-7)
When King Solomon built the Temple in Jerusalem, the master craftsman was Hiram (or Huram) of the tribe of Dan, whom the Phoenician King of Tyrus, whose name also was Hiram (or Huram), sent to Solomon:
“Then Huram the king of Tyre answered in writing, which he sent to Solomon, Because the LORD hath loved his people, he hath made thee king over them. Huram said moreover, Blessed be the LORD God of Israel, that made heaven and earth, who hath given to David the king a wise son, endued with prudence and understanding that might built an house for the LORD, and and house for his kingdom. And now I have sent a cunning man, endued with understanding, of Huram my father's, The son of a woman of the daughters of Dan, and his father was a man of Tyre, skilfull to work in gold, and in silver, in brass, in iron, in stone, and in timber, in purple, in blue, and in fine linen, and in crimson; also to grave any manner of graving, and to find out every device which shall be put to him, with thy cunning men, and with the cunning men of my lord David thy father.” (2 Chron 2:11-14)
(In 1 Kings 7:13-14 Hiram's mother is said to be of the tribe of Naphtali. Dan and Naphtali were the only sons of Bilhah, and the two tribes were very close. Maybe Hiram's mother was of both Danite and Naphtalite ancestry. The Temple was based on the design of the Tabernacle. Since the Ark and the Tabernacle were built by a man of Judah and a man of Dan, and the Temple was built by a man of Judah (Solomon) and a man of Dan/Naphtali (Hiram), we can deduct that Hiram was primarily of Dan.)
Likewise with the New Christian Covenant, which of course was started by, and built upon faith in, the Lord Jesus Christ of the tribe of Judah. The Christian Dispensation started with the Lord Jesus Christ of Judah and will be finished by a prophet of Dan.
Remember that in some of the listings of the 12 tribes in the Old Testament, Dan was sometimes listed along Ephraim, Manasseh and Benjamin (1 Chron 2:1-2, Eze 48:30-35), and sometimes not mentioned at all (1 Chron 2:3-7:40). Likewise in Revelation Dan is not listed among the 12 tribes of Israel, but is also next to Ephraim.
Jacob predicted Dan's special role in the End Times
When Jacob-Israel blessed his 12 sons, he also predicted what should happen to them in the Last Days. In other words, it was not just general traits and prophecies about each of the 12 patriarchs and 12 tribes. It was specifically what should befall them in the Last Days, which we now live in:
“And Jacob called unto his sons, and said, Gather yourselves together, that I may tell you that which shall befall you in the last days. … Dan shall judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel. Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward. I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD.” (Gen 49:1, 16-18)
The faithful Christian overcomers are not just going to be spectators to the rule of Christ over the nations. The faithful Christians are going to rule WITH Christ and have authority to rule over and judge the nations of the World. That is why they are called “a royal priesthood, an holy nation” (1 Pet 2:9).
In Revelation, Christ says to John that He will give authority to Christians, just like God the Father gave authority to Christ: “And he that overcometh, and keepeth my works unto the end, to him will I give power over the nations. And he shall rule them with a rod of iron; as the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers: even as I received of my father.” (Rev 2:26-27)
And again Christ says that the martyrs will be given thrones and authority to judge: “And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them” (Rev 20:4)
The 144,000 God-fearing Israelites of Revelation chap. 7 will, of course, be among the first to receive such authority to rule and judge. But Dan is missing among the 144,000, and therefore Jacob said that “Dan will judge his people, as one of the tribes of Israel”. In other words Dan will not judge the same way as the other tribes judge. The other tribes (except Ephraim and Manasseh) judge with 12,000 men. But the tribe of Dan will judge through just one man, one of the two witnesses.
Jacob said: ”Dan shall be a serpent by the way, an adder in the path, that biteth the horse heels, so that his rider shall fall backward.” This means that the Danite witness will fight against the Antichrist, so that the Beast Empire – the future One World Government – will be hesitant in making the Antichrist its ruler.
Jacob ended his prophecy with the words: ”I have waited for thy salvation, O LORD.” This means that Dan's fight against the Antichrist will commence at a time of great distress for the people of God, when they have given up all hope of saving themselves through their own strength and only wait for the salvation of the LORD.
The Ephraimite witness and Ephraim among the 144,000
The name of Ephraim is missing from the 144,000, but there are 6,000 Ephraimites among the 144,000, because the tribe of Joseph is among the 144,000: ”Of the tribe of Joseph were sealed twelve thousand.” (Rev 7:8) The tribe of Joseph consists of Joseph's two sons Ephraim and Manasseh, and therefore there are 6,000 Ephraimites among the 144,000.
When Jacob-Israel blessed Joseph's two sons Manasseh and Ephraim, the custom would have been to give a greater blessing to the first-born, Manasseh. But instead Israel gave the greater blessing to Ephraim:
“And Joseph took them both, Ephraim in his right hand towards Israel's left hand, and Manasseh in his left hand toward Israel's right hand, and brought them near unto him. And Israel stretched out his right hand, and laid it upon Ephraim's head, who was the younger, and his left hand upon Manasseh's head, guiding his hands wittingly; for Manasseh was the firstborn. ...And when Joseph saw that his father laid his right hand upon the head of Ephraim, it displeased him: and he held up his father's hand, to remove it from Ephraim's head unto Manasseh's head. And Joseph said unto his father, Not so, my father: for this is the firstborn; put thy right hand upon his head. And his father refused, and said, I know it, my son, I know it: he also shall become a people, and he also shall become great: but truly his younger brother shall become greater than he, and his seed shall become a multitude of nations.” (Gen 48:13-14, 17-19)
In ancient Israel, the northern Kingdom of Israel was sometimes referred to as “Ephraim”, because the tribe of Ephraim was the leading tribe. Likewise in the End Times, the tribe of Ephraim will be greater than the tribe of Manasseh. In Revelation 7, Manasseh is represented with 18,000 men, because among the 144,000 are both 12,000 of the tribe of Manasseh and 12,000 of the tribe of Joseph. The latter would be 6,000 of Manasseh and 6,000 of Ephraim. If Manasseh is represented with 18,000 men and Ephraim with only 6,000 men, Manasseh would be the greater. But Ephraim is also represented by one of the two witnesses, and therefore Ephraim is as great - or even greater - than Manasseh.
Since Manasseh is represented by 18,000 men and Ephraim by 6,000 men, we can deduct that the Ephraimite witness is equivalent to 12,000 sealed Israelites. The tribe of Dan is completely missing from the 144,000, which means the Danite witness is also equivalent to 12,000 sealed Israel. The two witnesses will, in other words, be of equally great in the eyes of God, but in different ways.
V. Messiah ben Joseph in Judaism
That the two final prophets before the coming of the Messiah will be of Dan and Ephraim is a brand new theory to Christians. But to Jews it an old and well-known belief.
There are numerous Jewish writings and commentaries about the so-called Messiah ben Joseph and the Prince of Dan. They differ in the details, but they more or less say as follows:
Messiah ben Joseph (Messiah son of Joseph) is from the tribe of Ephraim. He will be assisted by the Prince of Dan. Armilus the son of Satan – whom the Christians call the Antichrist – will arise and demand to worshipped as God. The nations of the World will worship Armilus, but Messiah ben Joseph will refuse. Armilus will, to no avail, try to kill Messiah ben Joseph, and a multitude of the Lost 10 Tribes of Israel will gather around him. They will go to Jerusalem and united with Judah, and Armilus will succeed in killing Messiah ben Joseph. Later, Messiah ben David – the “King Messiah” - will return and resurrect Messiah ben Joseph, defeat Armilus and the Messianic Era for Israel and the World will begin.
According to David C. Mitchell, the author of the authoritative work Messiah ben Joseph (2016), the concept of Messiah ben Joseph goes back several centuries before the Christian Era, and is not a Jewish reaction to Christianity, which, of course identifies Jesus of Nazareth as both the Messiah son of Joseph (Joseph was the human stepfather of Jesus) and Messiah son of David (David was the ancestor of Jesus) (Mitchell: Messiah ben Joseph, p. 10).
“Messiah” is an English transliteration of the Hebrew “Maschiach”, which means “anointed one”. When Christians refer to “the Messiah”, they refer to Christ, which is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Messiah. But in the original Hebrew Old Testament many people are called “maschiach/messiah”. In English Bibles it is usually translated “anointed one”. The people which the Bible calls “messiah” include the kings Saul, David and Jehu (king af the northern 10 tribes of Israel). They were obviously a lesser kind of messiahs than the Lord Jesus, who also was the Son of God, or THE Messiah. In Judaism Messiah ben Joseph is one of these lesser messiahs, while Messiah ben David is the ultimate super-Messiah.
The Jewish Encyclopedia on Messiah ben Joseph
“Messiah ben Joseph: Finally, there must be mentioned a Messianic figure peculiar to the rabbinical apocalyptic literature - that of Messiah ben Joseph. The earliest mention of him is in Suk. 52a, b, where three statements occur in regard to him, for the first of which R. Dosa (c. 250) is given as authority. In the last of these statements only his name is mentioned, but the first two speak of the fate which he is to meet, namely, to fall in battle (as if alluding to a well-known tradition). Details about him are not found until much later, but he has an established place in the apocalypses of later centuries and in the midrash literature - in Saadia's description of the future ("Emunot we-De'ot," ch. viii.) and in that of Hai Gaon ("Ṭa'am Zeḳenim," p. 59). According to these, Messiah b. Joseph will appear prior to the coming of Messiah b. David; he will gather the children of Israel around him, march to Jerusalem, and there, after overcoming the hostile powers, reestablish the Temple-worship and set up his own dominion. Thereupon Armilus, according to one group of sources, or Gog and Magog, according to the other, will appear with their hosts before Jerusalem, wage war against Messiah b. Joseph, and slay him. His corpse, according to one group, will lie unburied in the streets of Jerusalem; according to the other, it will be hidden by the angels with the bodies of the Patriarchs, until Messiah b. David comes and resurrects him [...].
When and how this Messiah-conception originated is a question that has not yet been answered satisfactorily. It is not possible to consider Messiah b. Joseph the Messiah of the Ten Tribes. He is nowhere represented as such; though twice it is mentioned that a part of the Ten Tribes will be found among those who will gather about his standard.” (Jewish Encyclopedia, article “Messiah”: https://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10729-messiah#anchor16)
The Chabad Lubavitch on Messiah ben Joseph
The Chabad Lubavitch is one of the largest orthodox Jewish organizations. On their website they write:
“Jewish tradition speaks of two redeemers, each one called Mashiach. Both are involved in ushering in the Messianic era. They are Mashiach ben David and Mashiach ben Yossef.
The term Mashiach unqualified always refers to Mashiach ben David (Mashiach the descendant of David) of the tribe of Judah. He is the actual (final) redeemer who shall rule in the Messianic age. All that was said in our text relates to him.
Mashiach ben Yossef (Mashiach the descendant of Joseph) of the tribe of Ephraim (son of Joseph), is also referred to as Mashiach ben Ephrayim, Mashiach the descendant of Ephraim. He will come first, before the final redeemer, and later will serve as his viceroy.
The essential task of Mashiach ben Yossef is to act as precursor to Mashiach ben David: he will prepare the world for the coming of the final redeemer. Different sources attribute to him different functions, some even charging him with tasks traditionally associated with Mashiach ben David (such as the ingathering of the exiles, the rebuilding of the Bet Hamikdash, and so forth)." (https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/101747/jewish/Mashiach-ben-Yossef.htm)
Yair Davidiy on Messiah ben Joseph
Yair Davidiy from Jerusalem is an Orthodox Jewish author of numerous books on the Lost 10 Tribes of Israel. He writes concerning Messiah ben Joseph:
“The Messiah son of Joseph is a concept in Traditional Jewish thought concerning a future leader who precedes the coming of the Messiah son of David. The Messiah son of Joseph, according to one school of thought, will head the Ten Tribes. He will be instrumental in gathering the Ten Tribes together and begin the process of reconciliation with Judah. 'Our Sacred Sages had a tradition that in the beginning [of the End Times] there would arise a Messiah [i.e. Anointed Saviour] from the house of Joseph who will reign over the Ten Tribes. He will wage wars and all of Israel will be gathered together under his banner. [This will continue] until later on, a descendant of David will appear and he will reign over them... A transformation will take place. The Ten Tribes and the stick of Joseph will draw themselves closer unto the stick of Judah, and this too, will be through the agency of a Prophet and by miracles.' Source: The Commentary of 'Malbim' on Ezekiel 37:1.” (Davidiy: To Rule the World, p. 64)
VI. Messiah ben Joseph's associate: The Prince of Dan
Messiah ben Joseph of Ephraim will be assisted by the “Prince of Dan”, according to Rabbi Hillel Rivlin (1758-1833) in Kol HaTor. Yair Davidiy explains:
“The book 'Kol HaTor' i.e. 'The Voice of the Turtledove' (a reference to Song of Songs 2:12) was written by Rabbi Hillel Rivlin (1758-1833) of Shklov, a disciple of the Vilna Gaon (1720-1797). It deals with the future Redemption and the task of the Messiah son of Joseph i.e. Moshiach ben Yoseph. This Messiah is an anointed leader who precedes the Messiah son of David and prepares the way for him. The Messiah son of Joseph is associated with the Lost Ten tribes (as explained by the Malbim on Ezekiel 37 and in articles on this matter). This book is a collection of the sayings of a great and famous Rabbi (Eliyahu of Vilna) and his followers in the eighteenth century. The work deals with the MESSIAH SON OF JOSEPH. Rabbi Elyahu of Vilna is considered to have been one of the greatest Rabbis of all time.
'Kol HaTor' says  The Prince of Dan will assist MESSIAH SON OF JOSEPH. Comment: The prince of Dan represents the people of Dan. The descendants of Dan are to be found today mainly amongst the people of Denmark and amongst descendants of the Irish overseas.” (Yair Davidiy: The Tasks of Moschiach ben Yoseph, https://www.britam.org/task.html)
In the article Dan Will Redeem, Yair Davidiy elaborates on why Dan will help Messiah ben Joseph: “Dan will Help Empower the Messiah son of Joseph: Rabbi Kook (Igorot 4:89) said that Dan through Samson represents the aspect of physical strength sanctified for a higher purpose. Israel will have need of this quality in the End Times. Rachel gave Bilhah to Jacob. Dan was born (Genesis 30:3-7), and after that Naphtali (Genesis 30:8). In a sense, by virtue of Rachel giving Bilhah to Jacob and Dan being born, Rachel eventually gave birth to Joseph (Genesis 30:23-24). This parallels Dan being connected to the future appearance of the Messiah son of Joseph. Dan is highly materialistic. That is why Dan is often associated with Idolatry. In the future Dan will use this materialistic streak of his in a positive direction. The Messiah son of Joseph represents materialistic liberation and power in defeating the enemies of Israel. Dan and Joseph will supplement each other in enabling the appearance of the Messiah son of Joseph and all that is associated with it.” (Yair Davidiy: Dan Will Redeem, https://www.britam.org/DanRedeem.html)
The belief in Messiah ben Joseph is widespread in orthodox Judaism, while the belief in his assistant the Prince of Dan is apparently believed by only a few.
VII. The two witnesses and Messiah ben Joseph and the Prince of Dan are strikingly similar
Now that we have a new understanding of the two witnesses, we can compare them with Judaism's view of Messiah ben Joseph and the Prince of Dan, and see how strikingly similar they are:
The two witnesses are from Dan and Ephraim.
Messiah ben Joseph and the Prince of Dan are from Ephraim and Dan.
The two witnesses will gather 144,000 of the 12 tribes of Israel.
Messiah ben Joseph and the Prince of Dan will gather thousands of the 10 Tribes of Israel and unite them with Judah (the Jews).
The two witnesses will prophesy against the Antichrist/the Beast and God will protect them.
Messiah ben Joseph and the Prince of Dan will fight against Armilus the son of Satan and God will protect them.
The two witnesses will be killed in Jerusalem by the “beast that ascendeth out of the bottomless pit” and their dead bodies will lie in the streets.
Messiah ben Joseph will be killed by Armilus the son of Satan/Gog in Jerusalem and his body will lie in the streets.
The two witnesses will be resurrected 3.5 days later by God and taken to Heaven.
Messiah ben Joseph will be the first to be resurrected by Messiah ben David.
Jesus the Messiah son of David will return with the angels of heaven and the resurrected saints, including the two witnesses, and defeat the Beast and the Antichrist and start the Millenial Kingdom.
Messiah ben David will return, resurrect Messiah ben Joseph and defeat Armilus/Gog and start the Messianic Era.
There are so many and so precise similarities between the two witnesses and Messiah ben Joseph and the Prince of Dan that they can only have come from one source. The source of the two witnesses is, of course, the God of Israel. Thus the source of Judaism's Messiah ben Joseph and the Prince of Dan must therefore also be the God of Israel.
VIII. The Danite and Ephraimite witnesses will redeem Dan and Ephraim from their sins
In the Old Testament the tribes of Dan and Ephraim were the tribes which were the most sinful of the 12 tribes. The two witnesses from Dan and Ephraim are going to redeem the tribes of Dan and Ephraim from their sins by doing something similar to what the tribes of Dan and Ephraim did in a sinful way, but this time without sinning.
Let us take a look at what Dan and Ephraim did wrong in the Old Testament. That will give us an idea about what the two witnesses are going to do to rectify those sins of their ancestors.
The sins of Dan
When the Israelites were wandering in the wilderness, a Danite man, the son of a Danite woman and an Egyptian father, cursed the name of the God of Israel and was put to death for it (Lev 24:10-14).
Samson the Danite is the judge who has the most space devoted to him in the Book of Judges (chap. 13-16). Samson was chosen by the God of Israel and was a foreshadow of the Lord Jesus Christ in numerous ways. And yet he seems to have lived a life without caring much about the God of Israel. He loved several Philistine women, which God had prohibited Israel from doing, because they would lead them to worship the gods of the Philistines. One of the Philistine women was even a prostitute, and apparently Samson did not think there was anything wrong in that.
When a part of the tribe of Dan migrated from their original territory between Jerusalem and Gaza, they hired a Levite who lived in Mount Ephraim to be their priest. The Danites brought along the Levite and the idol from his master's house and made this idol their center of worship (Judges 17-18).
When King Jeroboam led the 10 Tribes into seceding from the House of David in Jerusalem, he started a new pagan religion and set up two golden calves, one in Dan and one in Bethel in the territory of Ephraim (1 Kings 12:26-33).
The tribe of Dan started in the true religion of the God of Israel and often fell into idolatry. Samson loved Philistine women, including a prostitute. We can therefore expect the Danite witness to start in false religion and go to the true religion of the Lord Jesus Christ. He will also love non-Israelite – maybe even “Philistine” or Palestinean – women, but in a sinless way.
The sins of Ephraim
The Ephraimite Jeroboam was one of King Solomon's highest ranking men in charge of the northern 10 tribes. Jeroboam led the 10 Tribes into seceding from the House of David in Jerusalem, and started a new pagan religion and set up two golden calves, one in Dan and one in Bethel in the territory of Ephraim (1 Kings 12:26-33). Jeroboam was therefore the primary culprit for leading the 10 tribes of Israel away from the God of Israel and into idolatry. The 10 tribes never repented and were eventually deported out of the land of Israel by the Assyrians (2 Kings 17:6-23).
Jeroboam's sin was one of the most devastating sins in the Bible, because it led the 10 Tribes into permanent idolatry and separation from God. Like Jeroboam, Joshua the son of Nun was also an Ephraimite. Joshua was the successor of Moses and led Israel into the Promised Land. We can therefore expect the Ephraimite witness to be a person of some social standing. He will mirror Jeroboam, and therefore lead Israel out of false religion and into the true religion of the Lord Jesus Christ.
Yair Davidiy writes about how Judaism expects Messiah ben Joseph to redeem the sins of Ephraim, and Jeroboam in particular:
“The traditional Aramaic Translation of the Prophets (Targum Yehonathan on Exodus 40:11) says the MESSIAH SON OF JOSEPH is descended from Joshua the son of Nun from the Tribe of Ephraim. Other sources say that the MESSIAH SON OF JOSEPH is a descendant of Jeroboam the son of Nebath (Zohar Chadash, Balak 56b) who was also from the tribe of Ephraim and may too have been a descendant of Joshua the son of Nun. Jeroboam led the northern Ten Tribes when they rebelled against the House of David and broke away and formed their own kingdom of Israel (1-Kings chapter 12). All the Israelites in the separate kingdom of Israel were later exiled by the Assyrians and became the Lost Ten Tribes of Israel.
The MESSIAH SON OF JOSEPH who (according to this view) is a descendant of Jeroboam will bring about the reunification of the Lost Ten Tribes (Joseph) with Judah. He will therefore rectify the sin of his ancestor by re-uniting with Judah. He will make good what his forefather had done wrong. The majority opinion amonst the Rabbis who deal with this subject is that the Messiah son of Joseph will come from the Tribe of Ephraim.” (Davidiy: To Rule the World, pp. 64-65)
Similarities and differences between the two witnesses
Jeroboam was of Ephraim and placed two golden calves, one in Ephraim and one in Dan. If Messiah ben Joseph is going to rectify the sins of Jeroboam, this would indicate that that Ephraimite witness is more prominent than the Danite witness.
The construction of the Ark of the Covenant and the Tabernacle and the Temple of Solomon were led by a man of Judah and assisted by a man of Dan. This would, on the other hand, indicate that the Danite witness is more prominent than the Ephraimite witness.
The conclusion is that the two witnesses by will equally prominent. But the Ephraimite seems to have the emphasis on leaving false religion, and the Danite seems to have the emphasis on finishing the true religion.
Example: Simon Peter redeems the tribe of Simeon
To get a better idea of how the two witnesses will redeem the tribes of Dan and Ephraim, let us examine another example of redemption. When Jacob and his family moved into the land of Canaan, a Canaanite prince fell in love with Jacob's daughter Dinah, raped her and wanted to marry her. Dinah's brothers Simeon and Levi therefore slew the entire Canaanite town with the sword. This act of violence caused Jacob to curse Simeon and Levi in his prophecies to his sons (Gen 49:5-7). The tribe of Levi later redeemed the sin of their ancestor when a part of Israel rebelled against Moses, and the Levites gathered around Moses and slew the sinners with the sword (Exo 32:26-27). In the blessings of Moses, this caused Levi to be blessed, but Simeon to be without a blessing, as the only one of the tribes of Israel (Deu 33). For the remainder of the Old Testament, Simeon remained an obscure tribe which lived in a distant desert territory located within the territory of Judah.
Christ chose 12 apostles, which represented - and may even have been descended from - the 12 tribes of Israel. Judas Iscariot obviously represented the tribe of Judah (the Jews) which rejected Christ (“He came unto his own, and his own received him not.” John 1:11). Matthew Levi represented Levi. And the greatest of the 12 apostles, Simon Peter, represented the tribe of Simeon, the least esteemed of the 12 tribes in the Old Testament.
When the guards from the high priests came to arrest Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane, Simeon Peter drew his sword and cut off the ear of one of the guards, much like Simeon of old. Christ, however, told Simon Peter to put his sword into his sheath. This time Simon Peter obeyed the commandment of God and was blessed because of it and became the greatest of the 12 apostles.
The two witnesses from Dan and Ephraim will redeem the sins of their tribes in somewhat the same way as Simon Peter redeemed the sins of the tribe of Simeon.
IX. The two prophets will cause a mass conversion of Jews
When these two prophets become known to the World, they will – both according to Christianity and Judaism – be believed in by both God-fearing Christians of the 10 tribes and God-fearing Jews. God-fearing Israelites of all 12 tribes, of the Lost 10 Tribes as well as Jews, will believe in what these two prophets will say.
These two prophets will say that they are not the Messiah, but that the Messiah is coming soon, and that His name is Jesus Christ of Nazareth. This will affirm the faith of Christians of the Lost 10 Tribes, as well as Christians of all the nations of the World. But God-fearing Jews will have to accept Messiah ben Joseph, who is saying that they have believe in Yeshua as the Messiah, the Son of God. Or they have to reject Messiah ben Joseph. This will cause a mass conversion of Jews to believe in Yeshua as the Messiah, the Son of God.
X. Where are Dan and Ephraim today?
After the 10 tribes were conquered and deported by the Assyrians app. 721 BC, they migrated to Europe and became the nucleus of the nations of north-western Europe. This is believed by thousands across the World, both Christians such as the British-Israelites, as well as many Messianic Jews and Orthodox Jews. There is even an English Rosicrucian organization which believes in this truth, even though Rosicrucians are often not regarded as Christians (Zagami: Confessions, pp. 117-118).
Among the people who study the Lost 10 Tribes of Israel, there is a consensus that the tribe of Dan is found in the Kingdom of Denmark and the Republic of Ireland and possibly in parts of Great Britain, including their descendants across the World. Just in the United States there are 36 mio. Irish-Americans and 1.3 mio Danish-Americans. This would mean that the number of individuals with Danite or partial Danite ancestry could be as high as 50 mio.
There is also a consensus that the tribe of Ephraim is the United Kingdom, and its daughter nations of Canada (except Quebec), Australia, New Zealand and the English-speaking South Africans, as well as their descendants across the World. The United States of America as a nation, however, is predominantly Manasseh. This would mean that the number of individuals with Ephraimite or partial Ephraimite ancestry could be as high as 100 mio.
The two witnesses of Revelation, Messiah ben Joseph and the Prince of Dan, are likely to come from these areas.
Chabad, article “Maschiach ben Yossef”: https://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/101747/jewish/Mashiach-ben-Yossef.htm
Yair Davidiy: To Rule the World: How the British and Americans proved they descend from Joseph & The Ten Lost Tribes (Jerusalem: Russell-Davis Publications, 2015)
Yair Davidiy: Dan Will Redeem, https://www.britam.org/DanRedeem.html
Yair Davidiy: The Tasks of Moschiach ben Yoseph, https://www.britam.org/task.html
Jewish Encyclopedia, article “Messiah”: https://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/articles/10729-messiah#anchor16
David C. Mitchell: Messiah ben Joseph (Campbell Publications, 2016)
Leo Lyon Zagami: Confessions of an Illuminati Vol. I (San Fransisco, CCC Publishing, 2019)